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Posts Tagged Leap Motion
[Abstract] Gesture Interaction and Augmented Reality based Hand Rehabilitation Supplementary System – IEEE Conference Publication
[Conference Proceedings] Rhythmic Entrainment for Hand Rehabilitation Using the Leap Motion Controller – Full Text PDF
Millions of individuals around the world suffer from motor impairment or disability, yet effective, engaging, and cost-effective therapeutic solutions are still lacking. In this work, we propose a game for hand rehabilitation that leverages the therapeutic aspects of music for motor rehabilitation, incorporates the power of gamification to improve adherence to medical treatment, and uses the versatility of devices such as the Leap Motion Controller to track users’ movements. The main characteristics of the game as well as future research directions are outlined.
[ARTICLE] Leap Motion-based virtual reality training for improving motor functional recovery of upper limbs and neural reorganization in subacute stroke patients – Full Text
Virtual reality is nowadays used to facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. Most virtual reality studies have involved chronic stroke patients; however, brain plasticity remains good in acute and subacute patients. Most virtual reality systems are only applicable to the proximal upper limbs (arms) because of the limitations of their capture systems. Nevertheless, the functional recovery of an affected hand is most difficult in the case of hemiparesis rehabilitation after a stroke. The recently developed Leap Motion controller can track the fine movements of both hands and fingers. Therefore, the present study explored the effects of a Leap Motion-based virtual reality system on subacute stroke. Twenty-six subacute stroke patients were assigned to an experimental group that received virtual reality training along with conventional occupational rehabilitation, and a control group that only received conventional rehabilitation. The Wolf motor function test (WMFT) was used to assess the motor function of the affected upper limb; functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the cortical activation. After four weeks of treatment, the motor functions of the affected upper limbs were significantly improved in all the patients, with the improvement in the experimental group being significantly better than in the control group. The action performance time in the WMFT significantly decreased in the experimental group. Furthermore, the activation intensity and the laterality index of the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex increased in both the experimental and control groups. These results confirmed that Leap Motion-based virtual reality training was a promising and feasible supplementary rehabilitation intervention, could facilitate the recovery of motor functions in subacute stroke patients. The study has been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR-OCH-12002238).
Chronic conditions such as stroke are becoming more prevalent as the world’s population ages (Christensen et al., 2009). Although the number of fatalities caused by stroke has fallen in most countries, stroke is still a leading cause of acquired adult hemiparesis (Langhorne et al., 2009; Liu and Duan, 2017). Up to 85% of patients who survive a stroke experience hemiparesis, resulting in impaired movement of an arm and hand (Nakayama et al., 1994). Among them, a large proportion (46% to 95%) remain symptomatic six months after experiencing an ischemic stroke (Kong et al., 2011). The loss of upper limb function adversely affects the quality of life and impedes the normal use of other body parts. The motor function recovery of the upper limbs is more difficult than that of the lower extremities (Kwakkel et al., 1996; Nichols-Larsen et al., 2005; Día and Gutiérrez, 2013). Functional motor recovery in the affected upper extremities in patients with hemiparesis is the primary goal of physical therapists (Page et al., 2001). Evidence suggests that repetitive, task-oriented training of the paretic upper extremity is beneficial (Barreca et al., 2003; Wolf et al., 2006). Rehabilitation intervention is a critical part of the recovery and studies have reported that intensive repeated practice is likely necessary to modify the neural organization and favor the recovery of the functional upper limb motor skills of stroke survivors (Brunnstrom, 1966; Kopp et al., 1999; Taub et al., 1999; Wolf et al., 2006; Nudo, 2011). Meta-analyses of clinical trials have indicated that longer sessions of practice promote better outcomes in the case of impairments, thus improving the daily activities of people after a stroke (Nudo, 2011; Veerbeek et al., 2014; Sehatzadeh, 2015; French et al., 2016). However, the execution of these conventional rehabilitation techniques is tedious, resource-intensive, and often requires the transportation of patients to specialized facilities (Jutai and Teasell, 2003; Teasell et al., 2009).
Virtual reality training is becoming a promising technology that can promote motor recovery by providing high-intensity, repetitive, and task-orientated training with computer programs simulating three-dimensional situations in which patients play by moving their body parts (Saposnik et al., 2010, 2011; Kim et al., 2011; Laver et al., 2015; Tsoupikova et al., 2015). The gaming industry has developed a variety of virtual reality systems for both home and clinical applications (Saposnik et al., 2010; Bao et al., 2013; Orihuela-Espina et al., 2013; Gatica-Rojas and Méndez-Rebolledo, 2014). The most difficult task related to hemiparesis rehabilitation after a stroke is the functional recovery of the affected hand (Carey et al., 2002). To facilitate the functional recovery of a paretic hand along with that of the proximal upper extremity, an ideal virtual reality system should be able to track hand position and motion, which is not a feature of most existing virtual reality systems (Jang et al., 2005; Merians et al., 2009). The leap motion controller developed by Leap Motion (https://www.leapmotion.com) provides a means of capturing and tracking the fine movements of the hand and fingers, while controlling a virtual environment requiring hand-arm coordination as part of the practicing of virtual tasks (Iosa et al., 2015; Smeragliuolo et al., 2016).
Most virtual reality studies have often only involved patients who have experienced chronic stroke (Piron et al., 2003; Yavuzer et al., 2008; Saposnik et al., 2010; da Silva Cameirao et al., 2011). For patients in the chronic stage, who had missed the window of opportunity present at the acute and subacute stages (in which the brain plasticity peaks), rehabilitation-therapy-induced neuroplasticity can only be effective within a relatively narrow range (Chen et al., 2002). No motor function recovery of the hands, six months after the onset of a stroke, indicates a poor prognosis for hand function (Duncan et al., 1992).
We hypothesized that Leap Motion-based virtual reality training would facilitate motor functional recovery of the affected upper limb, as well as neural reorganization in subacute stroke patients. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), also called blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI (BOLD-fMRI), is widely used as a non-invasive, convenient, and economical method to examine cerebral function (Ogawa et al., 1990; Iosa et al., 2015; Yu et al., 2016). In the present study, we evaluated the brain function reorganization by fMRI, as well as the motor function recovery of the affected upper limb in patients with subacute stroke using Leap Motion-based virtual reality training.[…]
Continue —> Leap Motion-based virtual reality training for improving motor functional recovery of upper limbs and neural reorganization in subacute stroke patients Wang Zr, Wang P, Xing L, Mei Lp, Zhao J, Zhang T – Neural Regen Res
… After a stroke, patients usually have motor deficiency that reduces the strength and motion range of their limbs. Physiotherapeutic rehabilitation focuses on exercises that train single movements and functions of di8erent body parts: shoulder flexion/extension and abduction/adduction, wrist flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation, reaching, hand opening/closing and pinch, trunk axial and lateral rotation, lateral and frontal body weight transfer on the lower limbs.[…]
[Conference paper] Virtual Environments for Motor Fine Skills Rehabilitation with Force Feedback – Abstract+References
In this paper, it is proposed an application to stimulate the motor fine skills rehabilitation by using a bilateral system which allows to sense the upper limbs by ways of a device called Leap Motion. This system is implemented through a human-machine interface, which allows to visualize in a virtual environment the feedback forces sent by a hand orthosis which was printed and designed in an innovative way using NinjaFlex material, it is also commanded by four servomotors that eases the full development of the proposed tasks. The patient is involved in an assisted rehabilitation based on therapeutic exercises, which were developed in several environments and classified due to the patient’s motor degree disability. The experimental results show the efficiency of the system which is generated by the human-machine interaction, oriented to develop human fine motor skills.
[Abstract] Gamification of Hand Rehabilitation Process Using Virtual Reality Tools: Using Leap Motion for Hand Rehabilitation
[Master’s thesis] Tracking, monitoring and feedback of patient exercises using depth camera technology for home based rehabilitation – ANNA RIDDERSTOLPE – Full Text PDF
Neurological and chronic diseases have profound impacts on a person’s life. Rehabilitation is essential in order to maintain and promote maximal level of recovery by pushing the bounds of physical, emotional and cognitive impairments. However, due to the low physical mobility and poor overall condition of many patients, traveling back and forth to doctors, nurses and rehabilitation centers can be exhausting tasks. In this thesis a game-based rehabilitation platform for home usage, supporting stroke and COPD rehabilitation is presented. The main goal is to make rehabilitation more enjoyable, individualized and easily accessible for the patients.
The game-based rehabilitation tool consists of three systems with integrated components: the caregiver’s planning and follow-up system, the patient’s gaming system and the connecting server system. The server back end components allow the storage of patient specific information that can be transmitted between the patient and the caregiver system for planning, monitoring and feedback purposes. The planning and follow-up system is a server system accessed through a web-based front-end, where the caregiver schedules the rehabilitation program adjusted for each individual patient and follow up on the rehabilitation progression. The patient system is the game platform developed in this project, containing 16 different games and three assessment tests. The games are based on specific motion patterns produced in collaboration with rehabilitation specialists. Motion orientation and guidance functions is implemented specifically for each exercise to provide feedback to the user of the performed motion and to ensure proper execution of the desired motion pattern.
The developed system has been tested by several people and with three real patients. The participants feedback supported the use of the game-based platform for rehabilitation as an entertaining alternative for rehabilitation at home. Further implementation work and evaluation with real patients are necessary before the product can be used for commercial purpose.
Reh@Panel (formerly RehabNet CP) acts as a device router, bridging a large number of tracking devices and other hardware with the RehabNet Training Games for the patient to interact with. Reh@Panel implements the communication protocols in a client/server architecture. Native device support for:
- Emotiv EPOC neuro-headset is intergrated for acquiring raw EEG data, gyroscope data, facial expressions and Emotiv’s Expressiv™, Cognitiv™ and Affectiv™ suite
- Neurosky EEG headset is supported for raw EEG acquisition and eSense™ meters of attention and meditation
- Myoelectric orthosis mPower 1000 (Myomo Inc, Boston, USA) is supported, providing 2 EMG channels and adjustable levels of assistance
A partner and director of the business advisory board for Ges Therapy, Tristan Rock talks to StrokeSmart about Ges Therapy and how it can help stroke survivors.
StrokeSmart: What is Ges Therapy?
Tristan Rock: Ges Therapy is a suite of games that use an infrared motion sensor called Leap Motion to track the movement of patients’ arms and hands as they complete tasks in the game. Although the idea of controlling a plane’s direction through rings may sound simple, for those in therapy it can be difficult.
The games automatically calibrate to the appropriate ability level and allows patients to play no matter how impaired they are. Patients had the same amount of fun playing even if they were severely impaired.
SS: How can a motion sensor video game help a stroke survivor in his or her recovery?
TR: What we are starting to understand about recovery from stroke is that in order to recover function, we need to encourage a lot of structured exercise and skill-practice. This includes large numbers of repetitions in an environment that is both engaging and provides feedback about performance in real-time.
Conventional models of care are unable to provide the level of intensity required for optimal recovery. Regular, high-intensity physical therapy is expensive and inconvenient for elderly individuals with mobility problems, and therapy protocols are often repetitive and boring. The Ges Therapy gaming system brings therapy to the individual in the comfort of their home. The sensitivity of the motion capture sensor allows us to calibrate the system to each individual’s specific ability level, allowing for truly personalized rehabilitation protocols.
Additionally, the gaming environment makes for a compelling and engaging rehabilitation experience. Patients are excited to play the game and reach the next level! We are excited to get this innovative new therapy into the hands of those who need it.
SS: Where is Ges Therapy available?
TR: Right now, we are available at limited facilities. We are constantly looking to work with additional facilities throughout the United States and Europe. We are also in the midst of getting ready to launch to Ges Therapy for home use.
SS: How can a stroke survivor learn more about Ges Therapy?
TR: The best way to learn more about Ges Therapy is to contact me directly at Tristan@gestherapy.com or at (617) 721-6690.
[ARTICLE] Adding Inverse Kinematics for Providing Live Feedback in a Serious Game-based Rehabilitation System – Full Text PDF
In this paper, we present a serious game-based framework for providing live feedback to a patient performing a rehabilitation therapy for the purpose of assisting a patient in correct therapeutic steps and obtaining high quality therapy data for further analysis.
The game environment uses forward kinematics to receive the live sensory data from two 3D motion tracking sensors and uses inverse kinematics to analyze the sensory data stream in real-time. A subject performs a rehabilitation therapy prescribed by the physician and using both forward and inverse kinematics the system validates the angular and rotational positions of the joints with respect to the correct therapeutic posture and provides live feedback to the subject.
As a proof of concept, we have developed an open source web-based framework that can be easily adopted for inhome therapy, without the assistance of a therapist.
Finally, we share our initial test result, which is encouraging.
more –> Full Text PDF