Posts Tagged music

[Abstract] A Music-Based Digital Therapeutic: Proof-of-Concept Automation of a Progressive and Individualized Rhythm-Based Walking Training Program After Stroke



The rhythm of music can entrain neurons in motor cortex by way of direct connections between auditory and motor brain regions.


We sought to automate an individualized and progressive music-based, walking rehabilitation program using real-time sensor data in combination with decision algorithms.


A music-based digital therapeutic was developed to maintain high sound quality while modulating, in real-time, the tempo (ie, beats per minute, or bpm) of music based on a user’s ability to entrain to the tempo and progress to faster walking cadences in-sync with the progression of the tempo. Eleven individuals with chronic hemiparesis completed one automated 30-minute training visit. Seven returned for 2 additional visits. Safety, feasibility, and rehabilitative potential (ie, changes in walking speed relative to clinically meaningful change scores) were evaluated.


A single, fully automated training visit resulted in increased usual (∆ 0.085 ± 0.027 m/s, P = .011) and fast (∆ 0.093 ± 0.032 m/s, P = .016) walking speeds. The 7 participants who completed additional training visits increased their usual walking speed by 0.12 ± 0.03 m/s after only 3 days of training. Changes in walking speed were highly related to changes in walking cadence (R2 > 0.70). No trips or falls were noted during training, all users reported that the device helped them walk faster, and 70% indicated that they would use it most or all of the time at home.


In this proof-of-concept study, we show that a sensor-automated, progressive, and individualized rhythmic locomotor training program can be implemented safely and effectively to train walking speed after stroke. Music-based digital therapeutics have the potential to facilitate salient, community-based rehabilitation.


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[WEB SITE] Scientists: Mozart’s music helps with epilepsy

Scientists from Italy conducted a study, during which they established the beneficial effects of Mozart’s piano music on people’s mental health. They proved that the works of the composer help with epilepsy.

Scientists: Mozart's music helps with epilepsy
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The “Mozart effect” has been known since the end of the last century. However, until recently, no research has provided convincing evidence of its existence, and therefore doctors are skeptical about it. Scientists from the University of Pisa carried out scientific work, during which they carried out a detailed analysis of 147 published articles devoted to this phenomenon. After reviewing all the materials, Dr. Federico Sicca and Gianluca Sesso chose the 12 most accurate. They compared the results obtained by experts working independently of each other, revealing patterns. In their opinion, listening to classical works of Mozart daily can have a significant impact on health. The number of seizures with epilepsy among fans of such music decreases from 31% to 66%. Even a one-time listening has a positive impact. Probably, the effect is due to special rhythmic structures, but the therapeutic effect can be revealed when listening to compositions by other authors.

Their colleague from the Lithuanian University of Medical Sciences Vesta Steiblienė agrees with them. In her opinion, interest in non-invasive methods of brain stimulation is growing and is increasingly being practiced by doctors, but for widespread use and acceptance of recommendations, such neurostimulation should be studied more carefully and accurately. Since it is already obvious now that Mozart’s music really has an effect, but it is not clear at the expense of what exactly.


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[BLOG POST] What is Neuroplasticity? A Psychologist Explains [+14 Exercises]

What is Neuroplasticity? Definition + 14 Brain Plasticity Exercises

Our brains are truly amazing, aren’t they?

Have you ever watched one of those specials on someone who experienced an amazing, unexpected recovery after a traumatic brain injury, stroke, or other brain damage? Some of those stories seem like the only explanation is magic.

Although it certainly seems inexplicable, scientists have been hard at work studying exactly these cases over the last several decades, and have found the explanation behind the magic: neuroplasticity.

Before you read on, we thought you might like to download our 3 Positive Psychology Exercises for free. These science-based exercises will explore fundamental aspects of positive psychology including strengths, values and self-compassion and will give you the tools to enhance the wellbeing of your clients, students or employees.

You can download the free PDF here.

What is the Meaning of Neuroplasticity?

Neuroplasticity refers to the brain’s ability to adapt. Or, as Dr. Campbell puts it:

“It refers to the physiological changes in the brain that happen as the result of our interactions with our environment. From the time the brain begins to develop in utero until the day we die, the connections among the cells in our brains reorganize in response to our changing needs. This dynamic process allows us to learn from and adapt to different experiences” – Celeste Campbell (n.d.).

Our brains are truly extraordinary; unlike computers, which are built to certain specifications and receive software updates periodically, our brains can actually receive hardware updates in addition to software updates. Different pathways form and fall dormant, are created and are discarded, according to our experiences.

When we learn something new, we create new connections between our neurons. We rewire our brains to adapt to new circumstances. This happens on a daily basis, but it’s also something that we can encourage and stimulate.[…]

Continue —-> What is Neuroplasticity? A Psychologist Explains [+14 Exercises]

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[WEB SITE] Music Therapy Boosts Stroke-Recovery Rates, Aids Memory

Bridging Sound and Science: Music’s Role in Healing

Health experts explore how a song could become the prescription of the future

Choir Helps Stroke Survivors Regain Their Voice

Randy Kernus was not expected to live. Nine years ago the then 51-year-old was headed to work near his home in Northern Virginia when a tangle of abnormal blood vessels on his brain started to bleed.

He doesn’t remember anything from that day — neither the rush from one hospital to the next nor the diagnosis that followed: a massive hemorrhagic stroke that required a major operation to remove the cluster of vessels that caused the bleeding.

Kernus survived the trauma, beating the experts’ initial predictions. But the stroke left him partially paralyzed and nearly speechless from Broca’s aphasia, a common stroke-associated injury that affects one’s ability to produce words, even though language comprehension typically remains intact.

After several weeks of routine rehabilitation therapies, the paralysis went away. Kernus’ speech, however, was slow to return. More than a year after the stroke, he still wasn’t speaking in complete sentences, and that terrified his wife, Laura Obradovic.

“His neurologist had told us, ‘Wherever he’s at 18 to 24 months after the stroke, that’s probably the best he’s going to be,’ ” Obradovic recalls.

Refusing to accept her husband’s stalled progress and stunted sentences as their new normal, Obradovic enrolled in a nearby support group for stroke survivors and their caregivers, hoping to learn about other interventions from those who were going through the same thing.

That’s where they met Tom Sweitzer.

Survivors who sing   

Standing over a keyboard at the front of a beige conference room on a satellite college campus in Loudon, Virginia, Sweitzer, a music therapist, addressed the dozen or so adults seated in front of him. Some were joined by caregivers; others came solo. Everyone held sheet music.

“Let’s start by telling us one of your favorite Thanksgiving traditions,” Sweitzer said.

The group, a choir of stroke survivors that goes by the name Different Strokes for Different Folks, had just finished a more traditional vocal warm-up. But this next exercise wasn’t for the voice; it was for the brain.

The singers went around the room and traded stories of food and family. When it was Kernus’ turn, he told the group, “Pumpkin pie is one of my favorites. But on top of that, obviously, it’s football for me.”

Nothing about his sentence was incomplete.

“It’s just really, really impressive,” Obradovic says about her husband’s progress since joining the stroke choir five years ago, despite having no previous experience or even an interest in singing. “Randy has come leaps and bounds from where he was” when doctors predicted he would likely not see further improvements in his speech.

The Different Strokes for Different Folks stroke choir practices for an upcoming performance in Loudoun County, Virginia.


The Different Strokes for Different Folks stroke choir practices for an upcoming performance in Loudoun County, Virginia.

The breakthroughs Kernus has experienced since joining the stroke choir are not unique. Music therapist Skylar Freeman, who works with Sweitzer and the stroke choir, sees progress like his all the time. When she joined the group, three years ago, Freeman says, it was “really difficult” to understand what many of the members were trying to communicate. Sentences were short and often incomplete, and pauses between words stretched several seconds.

“And now it’s like full sentences — very quick, super responsive,” she says. “Some people say that it’s like magic. I don’t think it’s like magic; it’s like music. That’s just really what it is.”

Drop the melody, but keep the words

Researchers and therapists have long known that people who can’t speak after a brain injury, including stroke, usually can sing. For the majority of the population, words and music are produced in similar ways but on opposite sides of the brain — speech on the left and song on the right — explains Kathleen Howland, a music therapist, speech therapist and professor of music therapy at Berklee College of Music in Boston.

“And what is so fascinating about music and the brain is when speech goes down, music typically does not,” Howland says.

But speech and music also share a network. And studies have found that singing can help rebuild speech pathways. This is one reason why Sweitzer and a team of therapists from his Middleburg, Virginia, nonprofit, A Place to Be, work with stroke survivors on singing everyday phrases, including what they want to eat and how they feel in a particular moment. The goal: One day they’ll drop the melody but keep the words.

Brandon Hassan, a music therapist who works with the choir, demonstrates this by tapping his leg and slowly singing, “I’m feeling sad.” All too often, he says, people with aphasia resort to words or phrases that come easily, and “I’m good” is one of the phrases he hears regularly.

“Someone could be very upset in a moment, but that’s the phrase that’s easy to put out there into the world,” he explains. “So we can work on that emotional vocabulary and help provide those phrases that are functional so that we don’t always just have to say ‘I’m good’ because it’s the easiest thing to say.”



At their weekly rehearsals, the singers are challenged to fill in missing lyrics to familiar songs, which may be top of mind but not tip of tongue. For example, the therapists will sing “All you need is …” and wait, no matter how long it takes, for someone to say “love.” The group also writes original songs, which requires members to come up with, and remember, words to an unfamiliar melody.

“People who stutter after their stroke, they don’t stutter when they sing,” Sweitzer notes. “When something inside of your brain dies, the simplest beat … and a simple sound can open up your brain to want to grow again.”

And figuring out how those “simple sounds” trigger healing pathways in the brain is exactly what one of the world’s leading biomedical research institutes has set out to do.

Synching science with song 

In June 2015, National Institutes of Health Director Francis Collins found himself at a dinner party with “a rather distinguished group of people,” just outside the nation’s capital.

Supreme Court justices Anthony Kennedy, Antonin Scalia and Ruth Bader Ginsburg were in attendance, and the mood was “tense,” to say the least. The dinner took place the same week the court had issued its ruling on gay marriage, “and there was not full agreement amongst those three Supreme Court justices about whether they got it right,” recalls Collins, a physician who is known for his work on the Human Genome Project.

In an effort to lighten the mood, the geneticist and amateur musician grabbed his guitar — Collins admits he “sometimes” brings it to social events — and jumped onstage with the bluegrass band that was there entertaining the guests. World-renowned soprano Renée Fleming, who was also at the dinner, joined him.

“The whole evening changed. People began to sort of relax out of their tension zones,” Collins says. “Antonin Scalia — smoking a cigar, raising his glass of brandy — lustily sang along as we joined together for a rendition of the Bob Dylan anthem ‘The Times They Are A-Changin,’ which seemed particularly appropriate. And, I confess, I chose it for that reason.”

The impromptu performance by the scientist and the soprano not only saved the fate of the fete but also prompted the duo to launch a joint research endeavor between the NIH and the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts to explore the link between music and health, called the Sound Health Initiative, in partnership with the National Endowment for the Arts. In September the NIH announced a $20 million investment to fund the initiative’s first round of studies.

“You wouldn’t, at this point, say music therapy is a well-worked-out science,” despite a small body of research showing its effectiveness, Collins says. But newer technologies and a better understanding of how the brain works are making it easier for scientists to home in on how music affects the brain.

“And we know it affects you,” Collins adds. “When you hear a piece of music that’s particularly important to you, it makes you stop where you are. You might get a chill or some other experience. It’s really getting in there, in your brain circuits, and having a profound effect.”

“Some people say that it’s like magic. I don’t think it’s like magic; it’s like music.

–Music therapist Skylar Freeman

Some of the NIH-funded projects are looking at how music may be able to help improve walking ability in people with Parkinson’s disease. Another looks at the potential for music to reduce the likelihood that patients in intensive care will develop delirium — a common complication in hospital care, especially among older adults. There’s also a study underway examining music’s potential to improve physical and mental health in older adults with cardiovascular disease.

It will be a few years before the results from the Sound Health Initiative research come to light, but once they do, Collins expects that the field of music therapy will “really gather momentum.” And with more “solid evidence,” Collins is hopeful that music therapy will become a standard treatment for many common health conditions — one that physicians prescribe and third-party payers cover.

“Wouldn’t it be great if for pain, music was the first prescription before you get to any kind of pain relievers?” Fleming, the soprano, adds.

That might not be too far from reality.

Music taps into memory

Zoe Gleason Volz was packing up her collection of maracas, bells and tambourines after leading a music therapy session at an assisted living facility in Manassas, Virginia, when one of the adults leaving the room suddenly burst into song.

“We’re off to see the wizard,” the woman, in her 80s, sang.

Volz whipped around and joined in: “The wonderful wizard of Oz!” The two continued through the next several lines of the song. Just a few minutes earlier, the woman belting out the famous Judy Garland tune struggled to piece together details from everyday life. The words to the song from the 1939 film, however, flowed naturally.

“Sometimes you stumble into these really wonderful areas where you trigger a memory,” says Volz, a music therapist at Neurosound Music Therapy in Fairfax, Virginia, who often works with older adults who have memory issues. “After this session, a lot of the time, many individuals will continue to tell me stories. … So you’ve definitely hit something, and the brain is awake and active.”

Music therapist Zoe Gleason Volz leads a music therapy session with a group of older adults at an assisted living center in Northern Virginia.


Music therapist Zoe Gleason Volz leads a music therapy session with a group of older adults at an assisted living center in Northern Virginia.

Music’s effect on memory is another area of study being funded by the NIH. Specifically, scientists are looking at how memories are triggered by music and how music may help consolidate memories.

Research shows that music may provide relief from some symptoms associated with memory loss. Listening to music can reduce anxiety and agitation in people with Alzheimer’s disease, for example. It may also lessen their need for antipsychotic and antianxiety medications.

And similar to stroke recovery, music can be an effective way to communicate with people who have cognitive complications, explains Kelsi Yingling-Tafaro, a music therapist and executive director of Neurosound Music Therapy.

Some of the adults she works with don’t always process verbal instructions. “But if you sing the directives, they are very compliant. They understand what you are saying, and they are able to communicate with you through singing,” she says.

Other studies have found that music can help with memory recall and enhance people’s awareness of their current environment. This may be because musical memories are stored in a part of the brain that remains relatively undamaged by Alzheimer’s, researchers suggest.

“There’s something about music that taps into who you are,” the NIH’s Collins says. “It allows people who’ve kind of gotten lost back in the fog to come back out again with a familiar song and interact and experience enjoyment again.”

What’s more, music allows people to experience that sense of enjoyment with others.


More than medicine 

It was the day of the annual holiday concert — a performance the Different Strokes for Different Folks choir had spent months working toward. The singers, dressed in festive holiday attire, sat onstage at a local school in a row of chairs arranged in an arch, waiting for the program to start.

Everyone was there — that is, everyone except Kernus.

Suddenly, his face appeared on a large screen, stage right. The show was ready to start. Kernus no longer lives in Northern Virginia, where the stroke choir is based. He and his wife moved to North Carolina in October of 2019, to be closer to the beach — a retirement dream they pushed up once Kernus showed significant progress in his stroke recovery.

But despite the distance, Kernus is very much still an active member of the choir. He can’t imagine leaving, so each Wednesday he dials into practice through videoconferencing and participates in performances the same way. And it doesn’t seem strange to anyone involved.

The sense of community among the choir members is unlike anything Sweitzer has seen. Along with singing together, the group watch movies, go horseback riding and schedule walks, he says. They’ve helped one another overcome seemingly impossible obstacles and have been a source of comfort during times of devastating loss.

“Many of these individuals, they don’t live like they used to live,” Sweitzer explains. “Many of them will never drive again; some of them have actually lost their spouse through their episode with their stroke. So feeling isolated in a world where maybe other people might not understand the challenges that you have every day, and then coming into a social situation where there are people just like you … they call each other a family.”

And experts say that might be yet another key to music therapy’s success.

“Wouldn’t it be great if for pain, music was the first prescription before you get to any kind of pain relievers?”

–Renée Fleming

Social isolation and loneliness have been linked to several health problems, including high blood pressure, heart disease and Alzheimer’s disease, according to research from the National Institutes on Aging. And being cut off from communicating with others because of stroke-related aphasia can trigger feelings of isolation, music therapist Hassan says.

“The common theme that all of them said they experienced was the feeling of being alone in the world,” Hassan observes. “To have this group is huge for them, because they can come together and know that everyone is on the same page as them. … Everyone has context and knows what they’re going through.”

But music’s connective power may also be what keeps music therapy from being a routine part of medical care. “I think we wonder, How can something that is so emotional and so spiritually moving … how can that really attach itself to clinical and scientific outcomes?” Sweitzer says.

That’s where the Sound Health Initiative comes in. Collins says the goal of the project is to merge two fields that have been traveling in parallel, so that everyone involved can learn more about how music fits into medicine.

“The sparks that fly” when two seemingly opposite fields come together “is really the way new discoveries happen,” Collins says. “I’m counting on that happening here, and we’re already starting to see some evidence for that.”

“We are desperately looking for hope, desperately looking for healing,” Sweitzer adds, pointing to a lack of medical cures for Alzheimer’s and so many other diseases that haunt humanity. “And I think science is finally opening the door to the power of music.”


via Music Therapy Boosts Stroke-Recovery Rates, Aids Memory

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[Infographic] Music & The Brain


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[WEB PAGE] ‘Alternative’ Rehabilitation approaches – Online Neurology Journal ACNR

‘Alternative’ Rehabilitation approaches

Posted in Rehabilitation Articles on 17th Feb 2020

In the rehabilitation section of this edition we have chosen to focus on ‘alternative’ therapeutic approaches utilising music or animals. This reflects a growing interest in the importance of providing a stimulating therapeutic environment for patients as they undergo rehabilitation. There is evidence that patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation are bored1 and inactive.2 Patients treated in ‘enriched’ environments show greater levels of physical activity, social interaction and cognitive activity.3

Importantly, in the current financial climate, this was achieved without increasing staffing numbers; it is a change in mindset and also having availability of resources to support these interactions. Environmental enrichment can include provision of equipment to enhance activity away from the bedside e.g. iPads, books, puzzles, newspapers, games, music and magazines. It can also include provision of daily group sessions, with a varied focus, for example: self-management education, emotional support, communication, physical activities. Some of the interventions in studies on stroke units may already be occurring on rehabilitation wards e.g. communal mealtimes, but there is still scope to look at relatively easy and cheap changes that could enhance a patient’s rehabilitation journey and potentially improve rehabilitation outcomes and reduce length of stay. It is essential that rehabilitation environments enable people to continue to participate in meaningful activities and supporting interaction with family members as this can facilitate the transition to living with what is often a long term disability. Being hospitalised following an acquired brain injury entails many losses – loss of function, loss of independence, loss of role within family and society and a loss of identity. Physiological losses are compounded by a physical separation from family and also in some cases a virtual separation (the single most common complaint on our ward used to be the lack of WiFi signal). Loss of access to hobbies and cognitive stimulation from work often compounds the boredom. Hobbies and activities that interest people are intrinsically more rewarding and motivating than therapist-driven exercises. Diane Playford at the recent BSRM meeting spoke about the importance of ‘play’ or non-structured activity during rehabilitation and encouraged us to think of ways of incorporating more opportunities for play within our units. I hope these two articles will continue to stimulate that discussion.

Emily Thomas, Rehabilitation Editor

1. Kenah et al. Disability and rehabilitation. 2018;40(22):2713-22)
2. Janssen et al. Clin Rehabil. 2014;28(1):91-101. doi: 10.1177/0269215512466252. Epub 2012 Nov 28).
3. Rosbergen et al. 2017 Clinical Rehab

via ‘Alternative’ Rehabilitation approaches – ACNR | Online Neurology Journal ACNR | Online Neurology Journal

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[WEB SITE] How Music Helps Your Mental Health

How Music Helps Your Mental Health

Music is medicine for your mind.

There are very few things that stimulate the brain in the way it does. It’s one of the most demanding cognitive and neural challenging activities. Music requires complex and accurate timing of multiple actions in your brain because of the structural, mathematical, and architectural relationships between the notes. Although it may not feel like it, your brain is doing a lot of computing to make sense of all the incoming stimuli. It’s one of the few activities that activate almost every part of your brain.

The effects of music are cognitive, psychological, social, behavioral, and emotional. Research has shown that listening to musical pieces can reduce anxiety, blood pressure, and pain as well as improve sleep quality, mood, mental alertness, and memory. Active engagement with music has lasting brain benefits, such as improving concentration, memory, self-discipline, and confidence.  The cognitive benefits of music education extend from early childhood to old age. Some studies show that it can make you smarter. It may even help ward off the effects of brain aging.Music is a total brain workout.


Music Evokes Mental States

Listening to, singing, playing, composing, and improvising music evokes and allows you to express mental states and feelings. New research has determined that the subjective experience of music across cultures can be mapped to at least 13 common feelings, including:

  • amusement,
  • joy,
  • eroticism,
  • beauty,
  • relaxation,
  • sadness,
  • dreaminess,
  • triumph,
  • anxiety,
  • scariness,
  • annoyance,
  • defiance, and
  • feeling pumped up.

Researchers came up with a very cool interactive map, in which musical samples are plotted along the 13 dimensions of the emotional experiences determined. In the map, each letter corresponds to a musical track. You can hover over a letter to play it. Check out the map here.

How Music Helps Your Mental Health
Graphic by Alan Cohen.

Potential applications for these research findings range from informing psychological and psychiatric therapies designed to evoke certain feelings to helping music streaming services like Spotify adjust their algorithms to satisfy customers’ audio preferences or set the mood.

Music’s Mental Health Benefits

Reduces Stress

Research shows that listening to certain melodies can lower the stress hormone, cortisol. In one study reviewed, patients about to undergo surgery who listened to music had less anxiety and lower cortisol levels than people who had taken drugs.

Listening to music triggers the brain’s nucleus accumbens, responsible for releasing the feel-good neurochemical dopamine, which is an integral part of the pleasure-reward and motivational systems and plays a critical role in learning. Higher dopamine levels improve concentration, boost mood, and enhance memory. Dopamine is the chemical responsible for the yummy feelings you get from eating chocolate, having an orgasm, or a runner’s high.

Decreases Depression

Science shows that music can help alleviate depression and help a person feel more hopeful and in control of their life. There is even evidence that listening to music can aid in rewiring trauma in the brain. Creating harmonies with others or enjoying live music, like at a concert, gets the brain hormone oxytocin flowing increasing feelings of connectedness, trust, and social bonding.

A study appearing in the World Journal of Psychiatry found that musical therapy successfully reduced depression and anxiety in patients suffering from neurological conditions such as dementia, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease. Researchers also noted that the therapy had no negative side effects and was a safe, low-risk treatment tool. Other research showed that musical therapy significantly improved depressive symptoms.

How Music Helps Your Mental Health

Boosts Mood

One study found that people who listened to upbeat tunes could improve their mood and boost happiness levels in just two weeks. In the experiment, one group was instructed to try to improve their mood with music. The other participants were told to listen to music but were not guided to try to intentionally elevate their mood. When participants were later asked to describe their happiness levels, those who had purposefully tried to improve their moods reported feeling happier after just two weeks.

Not surprisingly, another study found that different types of music had different effects on mood. Researchers determined that classical and meditation scores offered the greatest mood-boosting benefits. Heavy metal and techno were found to be ineffective and in some cases, detrimental. Surprisingly though, even sad music can bring most listeners pleasure and comfort, according to one study.

While listening to music can bring multiple mental and physical health benefits, creating it can be therapy, too. Singing in a choir has many mood-boosting and mental health benefits. Of course, playing a musical instrument has advantages for both your mental wellbeing and physical brain health.

Increases Motivation and Enhances Performance

There’s a good reason why exercise classes blast the beats or runners have tunes playing in their earbuds. Research shows that listening to fast-paced music motivates people to work out harder.

In one experiment, 12 healthy male students pedaled stationary bikes. The participants rode for 25 minutes in three sessions and listened to six songs. Unbeknownst to the bikers, the researchers were altering the tempos and measuring performances. For example, the songs were played at a normal speed, increased by ten percent, or slowed by ten percent.

The researchers discovered that speeding up the tracks resulted in increased performance in terms of distance covered, the speed of pedaling, and power exerted. Interestingly, listening to faster-paced songs not only caused exercisers to work harder during their workouts; they also reported enjoying the music more. Conversely, slowing down the tempo led to decreases in all of the variables.

Strengthens Social Bonds

In a 2013 review of the research on music, Stefan Koelsch, a music psychologist at the Freie University Berlin, determined the mechanisms through which music allows us to connect with one another. It impacts brain circuits involved in empathy, trust, and cooperation. This might explain how it has survived in every culture of the world. Music is one of the few activities where people around the globe respond in a common way. It connects all kinds of people across a myriad of cultures, traditions, and practices all over the world.

The article, Four Ways Music Strengthens Social Bonds, explains that music helps people feel connected in four ways:

  1. It increases contact, coordination, and cooperation with others.
  2. Music causes your brain to release oxytocin.
  3. It strengthens our “theory of mind” and empathy.
  4. Music increases cultural cohesion.


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[Infographic] MUSIC & THE BRAIN

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[Infographic] MUSIC & THE BRAIN


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[WEB SITE] Brains Tend to Work in Sync During Music Therapy, Study Suggests

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The brains of a patient and therapist become synchronized during a music therapy session, a breakthrough that could improve future interactions between patients and therapists, researchers suggest.

The research, published in the journal Frontiers in Psychology, was carried out by Professor Jorg Fachner and Dr Clemens Maidhof of Anglia Ruskin University (ARU).

In the study, they used a procedure called hyperscanning, which is designed to record activity in two brains at the same time, allowing them to better understand how people interact.

During the session documented in the study, classical music was played as the patient discussed a serious illness in her family. Both patient and therapist wore EEG (electroencephalogram) caps containing sensors, which capture electrical signals in the brain, and the session was recorded in sync with the EEG using video cameras, a media release from Anglia Ruskin University explains.

Music therapists work towards “moments of change,” where they make a meaningful connection with their patient. At one point during this study, the patient’s brain activity shifted suddenly from displaying deep negative feelings to a positive peak. Moments later, as the therapist realized the session was working, her scan displayed similar results. In subsequent interviews, both identified that as a moment when they felt the therapy was really working.

The researchers examined activity in the brain’s right and left frontal lobes where negative and positive emotions are processed, respectively. By analyzing hyperscanning data alongside video footage and a transcript of the session, the researchers were able to demonstrate that brain synchronization occurs, and also show what a patient-therapist “moment of change” looks like inside the brain.

“This study is a milestone in music therapy research,” says lead author Jorg Fachner, Professor of Music, Health and the Brain at Anglia Ruskin University (ARU), in the release.

“Music therapists report experiencing emotional changes and connections during therapy, and we’ve been able to confirm this using data from the brain.

“Music, used therapeutically, can improve well-being, and treat conditions including anxiety, depression, autism and dementia. Music therapists have had to rely on the patient’s response to judge whether this is working, but by using hyperscanning we can see exactly what is happening in the patient’s brain,” he continues.

“Hyperscanning can show the tiny, otherwise imperceptible, changes that take place during therapy. By highlighting the precise points where sessions have worked best, it could be particularly useful when treating patients for whom verbal communication is challenging. Our findings could also help to better understand emotional processing in other therapeutic interactions,” he concludes.

[Source(s): Anglia Ruskin University, Science Daily]


via Brains Tend to Work in Sync During Music Therapy, Study Suggests – Rehab Managment

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