Posts Tagged UE

[WEB PAGE] Upper arm rehabilitation after severe stroke: where are we? – Physics World

10 Sep 2019 Andrea Rampin 
EEG cap

Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and the third cause of induced disability, according to estimates from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study. Treatments based on constraint-induced movement therapy, occupational practice, virtual reality and brain stimulation can work well for patients with mild impairment of upper limb movement, but they are not as effective for those burdened by severe disability. Therefore, novel individualized approaches are needed for this patient group.

Martina Coscia from the Wyss Center for Bio and Neuroengineering in Geneva, and colleagues from several other Swiss institutes, have published a review paper summarizing the most advanced techniques in use today for treatment of severe, chronic stroke patients. The researchers describe techniques being developed for upper limb motor rehabilitation: from robotics and muscular electrical stimulation, to brain stimulation and brain–computer/machine interfaces (Brain 10.1093/brain/awz181).

Robot-aided rehabilitation approaches include movement-assisting exoskeletons and end-effector devices, which enable upper arm movement by stimulating the peripheral nervous system. These techniques can also trigger reorganization of the impaired peripheral nervous system and encourage rehabilitation of the damaged somatosensory system. Several studies have reported the efficiency of robot-aided rehabilitation, alone or in combination with other techniques, in the treatment of upper limb motor impairment. One study that included severely impaired individuals also demonstrated encouraging results.

Muscular electrical stimulation can help improve the connection of motor neurons to the spinal cord and the motor cortex. Researchers have also demonstrated that application of electrical stimuli to the muscles provides positive effects on the neurons responsible for sensory signal transduction to the brain, thereby improving the motion control loop function. By modulating motor neurons’ sensitivity, muscular electrical stimulation inhibits the muscle spasms observed in other treatments.

More recently, therapies have moved on from the simple use of currents to harnessing coordinated stimuli to orchestrate more complex, task-related movements. Although this particular set of techniques didn’t show a particular advantage over physiotherapy in long-term studies of patients with mild upper limb impairment, it did seem to have a stronger effect for chronic severe patients.

Stimulating the brain

Brain stimulation, meanwhile, stimulates cortical neurons in order to improve their ability to form new connections within the affected neural network. Brain stimulation techniques can be divided into two branches – electrical and magnetic – both of which can activate or inhibit neural activity, depending on the polarity and intensity of the stimulus.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Researchers have achieved encouraging results using both techniques. In particular, magnetic field-triggered inhibition of the contralesional hemisphere (the hemisphere that was not affected by the stroke) activity yielded positive results. Magnetic, low-frequency stimulation of the contralesional hemisphere also proved encouraging – improving the reach to grasp ability of patients, although only for small objects. Excitingly, some studies suggest that coupling contralesional cortex inhibition with magnetic stimulation of the chronically affected area could achieve effective results.

Within these techniques, one promising approach is invasive brain stimulation, in which a device is surgically implanted in a superficial region of the brain. Such techniques allow for more sustained and spatially-oriented stimulation of the desired brain regions. The Everest trial used such methods and showed significant improvement for a larger percentage of patients after 24 weeks, compared with standard rehabilitation protocols.

Another promising recent development is non-invasive deep-brain stimulation, achieved by temporally interfering electric fields. The authors envision that a deeper understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in the brain’s reactions to magnetic and electrical stimulation will provide an important assistance in clinical application of these techniques.

The final category, brain–computer or brain–machine interfaces (BCIs or BMIs), exploit electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns to trigger feedback or an action output from an external device. Devices that produce feedback are used to train the patient to recruit the correct zone of the brain and help reorganize its interconnections. These techniques have only recently transitioned to the clinic; however, early results and observations are promising. For example, a BCI technique coupled with muscular electrical stimulation restored patients’ ability to extend their fingers.

In recent years, researchers have also tested combinations of the techniques described above. For example, combinations of robotics and muscular electrical stimulation have shown encouraging results, especially when more than one articulation was targeted by the treatment. Combining brain stimulation with muscular electrical stimulation and robotics has proved more effective in severe than in moderate cases. Also, coupling of muscular electrical stimulation with magnetic inhibitory brain stimulation provided better results than either individual technique. Interestingly, addition of electrical brain stimulation to a BCI system coupled with a robotic motor feedback enhanced the outcome, helping to achieve adaptive brain remodelling at the expense of inappropriate reorganization.

Coscia and co-authors highlight that all the techniques studied share a range of limitations that should be addressed, such as small sample size, limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms, lack of treatment personalization and minimal attention to the training task, which they note is often of limited importance for daily life. Addressing these limitations might be key to improving the clinical outcome for patients with severe stroke-induced upper limb paralysis treated with neurotechnology-aided interventions. Moreover, the authors plan to begin a clinical trial to test the use of a novel personalized therapy approach that will include a combination of the described techniques.

 

via Upper arm rehabilitation after severe stroke: where are we? – Physics World

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[Abstract] Myoelectric Computer Interface Training for Reducing Co-Activation and Enhancing Arm Movement in Chronic Stroke Survivors: A Randomized Trial

Background. Abnormal muscle co-activation contributes to impairment after stroke. We developed a myoelectric computer interface (MyoCI) training paradigm to reduce abnormal co-activation. MyoCI provides intuitive feedback about muscle activation patterns, enabling decoupling of these muscles.

Objective. To investigate tolerability and effects of MyoCI training of 3 muscle pairs on arm motor recovery after stroke, including effects of training dose and isometric versus movement-based training.

Methods. We randomized chronic stroke survivors with moderate-to-severe arm impairment to 3 groups. Two groups tested different doses of isometric MyoCI (60 vs 90 minutes), and one group tested MyoCI without arm restraint (90 minutes), over 6 weeks. Primary outcome was arm impairment (Fugl-Meyer Assessment). Secondary outcomes included function, spasticity, and elbow range-of-motion at weeks 6 and 10.

Results. Over all 32 subjects, MyoCI training of 3 muscle pairs significantly reduced impairment (Fugl-Meyer Assessment) by 3.3 ± 0.6 and 3.1 ± 0.7 (P < 10−4) at weeks 6 and 10, respectively. Each group improved significantly from baseline; no significant differences were seen between groups. Participants’ lab-based and home-based function also improved at weeks 6 and 10 (P ≤ .01). Spasticity also decreased over all subjects, and elbow range-of-motion improved. Both moderately and severely impaired patients showed significant improvement. No participants had training-related adverse events. MyoCI reduced abnormal co-activation, which appeared to transfer to reaching in the movement group.

Conclusions. MyoCI is a well-tolerated, novel rehabilitation tool that enables stroke survivors to reduce abnormal co-activation. It may reduce impairment and spasticity and improve arm function, even in severely impaired patients.

 

via Myoelectric Computer Interface Training for Reducing Co-Activation and Enhancing Arm Movement in Chronic Stroke Survivors: A Randomized Trial – Emily M. Mugler, Goran Tomic, Aparna Singh, Saad Hameed, Eric W. Lindberg, Jon Gaide, Murad Alqadi, Elizabeth Robinson, Katherine Dalzotto, Camila Limoli, Tyler Jacobson, Jungwha Lee, Marc W. Slutzky, 2019

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[WEB SITE] Research work in Neurotechnology directs efforts towards treating chronic stroke

Scientific work undertaken at Wyss Center for Bio and Neuroengineering in Geneva, Switzerland has developed a rehabilitation arm in order to improve recovery during severe chronic strokes in patients.

Stroke is regarded as one of the major health problems among people today. A common symptom observed among cases of stroke is the long-term impairment of upper arm function. This results in complications in daily life chores and hampers the quality of life.

The Neurotechnology includes a host of therapies, like robotics, brain stimulation, brain-machine interfaces, etc. According to experts, these will in return be fruitful in treating patients, centering on their individual needs. Moreover, the new study also sheds light on longitudinal clinical studies in order to understand the rehabilitation benefits of individual therapies. Furthermore, the study also focuses on various combinations of complementary therapies used over a period of time.

“Our findings show that neurotechnology-aided upper limb rehabilitation is promising for severe chronic stroke patients. However, we also found that the ‘one size fits all’ approach doesn’t lead to the best outcome. We suggest a move towards a personalized combination of neurotechnology-based stroke rehabilitation therapies, ideally in a home-based environment where prolonged therapy is more feasible than in a clinic. We believe that by sequentially introducing stroke therapies according to individual progress, we could allow patients to continue their recovery beyond what is possible today,” says Dr. Martina Coscia, lead author and Staff Engineer at Wyss Center.

As per experts, rehabilitation therapies show the best results within the first three months after the incidence of stroke. After the first three months, the scope of natural recovery is limited and patients are considered chronic, commonly observed scenario, especially among patients who are severely affected.

For the study, authors reportedly compared data from 64 cases of clinical studies based on upper limb neurotechnology treatments among stroke patients. The findings mainly centered on brain stimulation, electrical stimulation of muscles, and brain-computer interfaces, in addition to a combination of these.

Further reports suggest the team is directing efforts towards undertaking clinical traits in order to test the results. For the trial, experimental design such as robotics, functional electrical stimulation, brain-computer interfaces is used to monitor the after-effects of treatment in individual patients. Scientists believe to use a combination of neurotechnological and new personalized therapies in order to improve recovery among patients. The study published in the journal Brain alleges that the trial will begin in Switzerland in summer 2019.

via Research work in Neurotechnology directs efforts towards treating chronic stroke – Xaralite

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[Abstract] An Elbow Exoskeleton for Upper Limb Rehabilitation With Series Elastic Actuator and Cable-Driven Differential

Abstract

Movement impairments resulting from neurologic injuries, such as stroke, can be treated with robotic exoskeletons that assist with movement retraining. Exoskeleton designs benefit from low impedance and accurate torque control. We designed a two-degrees-of-freedom tethered exoskeleton that can provide independent torque control on elbow flexion/extension and forearm supination/pronation. Two identical series elastic actuators (SEAs) are used to actuate the exoskeleton. The two SEAs are coupled through a novel cable-driven differential. The exoskeleton is compact and lightweight, with a mass of 0.9 kg. Applied rms torque errors were less than 0.19 Nm. Benchtop tests demonstrated a torque rise time of approximately 0.1 s, a torque control bandwidth of 3.7 Hz, and an impedance of less than 0.03 Nm/° at 1 Hz. The controller can simulate a stable maximum wall stiffness of 0.45 Nm/°. The overall performance is adequate for robotic therapy applications and the novelty of the design is discussed.

via An Elbow Exoskeleton for Upper Limb Rehabilitation With Series Elastic Actuator and Cable-Driven Differential – IEEE Journals & Magazine

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[Abstract] Robotic Techniques Used for Increasing Improvement Rate In The Rehabilitation Process Of Upper Limb Stroke Patients – Full Text PDF

Abstract

The rate of stroke patients in Pakistan is increasing, resulting in the decrease mobility of the patients. The movement of upper limb stoke patient is decreased due to the weakness and loss of joint control in his upper body. To improve the coordination of movement of the upper limb stroke patients, many methods e.g. passive and active modes for improving the disrupted mobility are introduced. The objectives of this paper are to first review the studies on upper limb stroke patients and the techniques used for increasing the improvement rate through physical therapy by exoskeleton and evaluation of the performance of the patient using methods such as quantification and graphical representations so that it can be shown to the patient for his motivation to improve further. The paper introduces a mechanical design of exoskeleton with 1 degree of freedom for elbow and 2 degrees of freedom for shoulder movement for rehabilitation of joints of stoke patients. It also mentions the safety that will be taken in the process so that the exoskeleton is safe to use when it is in contact with human. The model of the exoskeleton has the characteristic of being modular and easily operable and use admittance control strategy. Control strategy of the exoskeleton is discussed to maintain the position and orientation of the device and also is able to cater the gravitational attraction which plays an important part in the movement of the actuators. The mathematical model of motion attained due to the degrees of freedom of the exoskeleton is then evaluated and the lastly areas where the future work of exoskeleton can be done are discussed.

Full Text PDF

via Robotic Techniques Used for Increasing Improvement Rate In The Rehabilitation Process Of Upper Limb Stroke Patients | Sukkur IBA Journal of Computing and Mathematical Sciences

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[Abstract] Modeling and analysis of hydraulic piston actuation of McKibben fluidic artificial muscles for hand rehabilitation

Soft robotic actuators are well-suited for interactions with the human body, particularly in rehabilitation applications. The fluidic artificial muscle (FAM), specifically the McKibben FAM, is a type of soft robotic actuator that can be driven either pneumatically or hydraulically, and has potential for use in rehabilitation devices. The force applied by a FAM is well-described by a variety of models, the most common of which is based on the virtual work principle. However, the use of a piston assembly as a hydraulic power source for activation of FAMs has not previously been modeled in detail. This article presents a FAM designed to address the specific needs of a hand rehabilitation device. A syringe pump test bed is used to find and validate a novel volume–strain relationship. The volume–strain relationship remains constant with the coupled piston–FAM system, regardless of load. This confirms a bivariate approach to FAM control which is particularly beneficial in the exoskeleton application as the load varies throughout use. A novel, fixed-end cylindrical model is found to predict the strain of the FAM, given a volume input, regardless of load. For the FAMs tested in this work, the fixed-end cylindrical model improves strain prediction seven-fold when compared with traditional models.

via Modeling and analysis of hydraulic piston actuation of McKibben fluidic artificial muscles for hand rehabilitation – Anderson S Camp, Edward M Chapman, Paola Jaramillo Cienfuegos,

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[WEB SITE] When it Comes to Stroke Recovery, Who You See Matters

(a) Top view of the experiment. A tablet monitor was placed over the participant’s right forearms on the desk in front of them. (b) Diagrammatic view of the experiment from the left. There is a space to open the hand, which made it easier to imagine the opening-clench hand movement. (Photo courtesy of Toshihisa Tanaka, TUAT)

For stroke patients, observing their own hand movements in a video-assisted therapy – as opposed to someone else’s hand – could enhance brain activity and speed up rehabilitation, according to researchers.

The scientists, from Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT), published their findings in IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering.

Brain plasticity, where a healthy region of the brain fulfills the function of a damaged region of the brain, is a key factor in the recovery of motor functions caused by stroke. Studies have shown that sensory stimulation of the neural pathways that control the sense of touch can promote brain plasticity, essentially rewiring the brain to regain movement and senses.

To promote brain plasticity, stroke patients may incorporate a technique called motor imagery in their therapy. Motor imagery allows a participant to mentally simulate a given action by imagining themselves going through the motions of performing that activity. This therapy may be enhanced by a brain-computer interface technology, which detects and records the patients’ motor intention while they observe the action of their own hand or the hand of another person, a media release from Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology explains.

“We set out to determine whether it makes a difference if the participant is observing their own hand or that of another person while they’re imagining themselves performing the task,” says co-author Toshihisa Tanaka, a professor in the Department of Electrical and Electrical Engineering at TUAT in Japan and a researcher at the RIKEN Center for Brain Science and the RIKEN Center for Advanced Intelligent Project.

The researchers monitored brain activity of 15 healthy right-handed male participants under three different scenarios. In the first scenario, participants were asked to imagine their hand moving in synchrony with hand movements being displayed in a video clip showing their own hand performing the task, together with corresponding voice cues.

In the second scenario, they were asked to imagine their hand moving in synchrony with hand movements being displayed on a video clip showing another person’s hand performing the task, together with voice cues. In the third scenario, the participants were asked to open and close their hands in response to voice cues only.

Using electroencephalography (EEG), brain activity of the participants was observed as they performed each task.

The team found meaningful differences in EEG measurements when participants were observing their own hand movement and that of another person. The findings suggest that, in order for motor imagery-based therapy to be most effective, video footage of a patient’s own hand should be used.

“Visual tasks where a patient observes their own hand movement can be incorporated into brain-computer interface technology used for stroke rehabilitation that estimates a patient’s motor intention from variations in brain activity, as it can give the patient both visual and sense of movement feedback,” Tanaka explains.

[Source(s): Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, EurekAlert]

via When it Comes to Stroke Recovery, Who You See Matters – Rehab Managment

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[Abstract] Task-oriented Motor Learning in Upper Extremity Rehabilitation Post Stroke

Abstract

Background: Upper extremity deficits are the most popular symptoms following stroke. Task-oriented training has the ability to increase motor area excitability in the brain, which can stimulate the recovery of motor control.

Objective: This study was aimed to examine the efficiency of the task-oriented approach on paretic upper extremity following a stroke, and to identify efficient treatment dosage in those populations.

Method: We searched through PubMed, Scopus, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), National Rehabilitation Information (REHABDATA), and Web of Science databases. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and pseudo-RCTs those investigating upper extremity in patients with stroke published in English language were selected. Different scales and measurement methods to assess range of motion, strength, spasticity, and upper extremity function were considered. The quality assessment of included articles was evaluated utilizing the PEDro scale. Effect sizes were calculated.

Results: Six RCTs were included in the present study. The quality assessment for included studies ranged from 6 to 8 with 6.5 as a median. A total of 456 post-stroke patients, 41.66% of which were women, were included in all studies. The included studies demonstrated a meaningful influence of task-oriented training intervention on the hemiplegic upper limb motor functions but not spasticity post-stroke.

Conclusion: Task-oriented training does not produce a superior effect than other conventional physical therapy interventions in treating upper extremity in patients with stroke. There is no evidence supporting the beneficial effect of task-oriented on spasticity. Task-oriented training with the following dosage 30 to 90 minutes/session, 2 to 3 sessions weekly for 6 to 10 weeks may improve motor function and strength of paretic upper extremity post-stroke.

via Task-oriented Motor Learning in Upper Extremity Rehabilitation Post Stroke – Anas R. Alashram, Giuseppe Annino, Nicola Biagio Mercuri,

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[Abstract] Efficacy of Home-Based Telerehabilitation vs In-Clinic Therapy for Adults After Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Many patients receive suboptimal rehabilitation therapy doses after stroke owing to limited access to therapists and difficulty with transportation, and their knowledge about stroke is often limited. Telehealth can potentially address these issues.

OBJECTIVES:

To determine whether treatment targeting arm movement delivered via a home-based telerehabilitation (TR) system has comparable efficacy with dose-matched, intensity-matched therapy delivered in a traditional in-clinic (IC) setting, and to examine whether this system has comparable efficacy for providing stroke education.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

In this randomized, assessor-blinded, noninferiority trial across 11 US sites, 124 patients who had experienced stroke 4 to 36 weeks prior and had arm motor deficits (Fugl-Meyer [FM] score, 22-56 of 66) were enrolled between September 18, 2015, and December 28, 2017, to receive telerehabilitation therapy in the home (TR group) or therapy at an outpatient rehabilitation therapy clinic (IC group). Primary efficacy analysis used the intent-to-treat population.

INTERVENTIONS:

Participants received 36 sessions (70 minutes each) of arm motor therapy plus stroke education, with therapy intensity, duration, and frequency matched across groups.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Change in FM score from baseline to 4 weeks after end of therapy and change in stroke knowledge from baseline to end of therapy.

RESULTS:

A total of 124 participants (34 women and 90 men) had a mean (SD) age of 61 (14) years, a mean (SD) baseline FM score of 43 (8) points, and were enrolled a mean (SD) of 18.7 (8.9) weeks after experiencing a stroke. Among those treated, patients in the IC group were adherent to 33.6 of the 36 therapy sessions (93.3%) and patients in the TR group were adherent to 35.4 of the 36 assigned therapy sessions (98.3%). Patients in the IC group had a mean (SD) FM score change of 8.36 (7.04) points from baseline to 30 days after therapy (P < .001), while those in the TR group had a mean (SD) change of 7.86 (6.68) points (P < .001). The covariate-adjusted mean FM score change was 0.06 (95% CI, -2.14 to 2.26) points higher in the TR group (P = .96). The noninferiority margin was 2.47 and fell outside the 95% CI, indicating that TR is not inferior to IC therapy. Motor gains remained significant when patients enrolled early (<90 days) or late (≥90 days) after stroke were examined separately.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Activity-based training produced substantial gains in arm motor function regardless of whether it was provided via home-based telerehabilitation or traditional in-clinic rehabilitation. The findings of this study suggest that telerehabilitation has the potential to substantially increase access to rehabilitation therapy on a large scale.

 

via Efficacy of Home-Based Telerehabilitation vs In-Clinic Therapy for Adults After Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial. – PubMed – NCBI

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[Abstract] Effects of Exergame on Patients’ Balance and Upper Limb Motor Function after Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Stroke is a major cause of motor incapacity in adults and the elderly population, requiring effective interventions capable of contributing to rehabilitation. Different interventions such as use of exergames are being adopted in the motor rehabilitation and balance area, as they act as motivating instruments, making therapies more pleasurable.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exergame on patients’ balance and upper limb motor function after stroke.

METHODS:

This study is a randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one participants of both genders, mean age of 76 years, were assigned to the experimental or control groups; the experimental group (n = 16) underwent exergame rehabilitation using Motion Rehab AVE 3D, and the control group (n = 15) underwent conventional physiotherapy. Both EG and GC sessions happened twice a week, for 30 minutes each, over a 12 weeks period, resulting in 24 sessions. All sessions were composed of similar exercises, with same purpose and elapsed time (5 minutes). Instruments applied to verify inclusion criteria were a sociodemographic questionnaire and clinical aspects and a Mini-Mental State Examination. At baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention, the Modified Ashworth Scale, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the Berg Balance Scale were used.

RESULTS:

In both groups, patients obtained significant improvement from baseline values in all analyzed variables (shoulder, elbow, and forearm; wrist; hand; and balance) (P < .001). In the intergroup comparison, there were significant differences between the 2 groups for changes in values from preintervention to postintervention of shoulder, elbow and forearm (P = .001), and total (P = .002).

CONCLUSION:

Exergame rehabilitation in poststroke patients can be an efficient alternative for restoring balance and upper limb motor function and might even reduce treatment time.

via Effects of Exergame on Patients’ Balance and Upper Limb Motor Function after Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial. – PubMed – NCBI

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